Our team at the Center for Urban Research (at the CUNY Graduate Center) has launched a set of maps showing race/ethnicity patterns from 2000 and 2010 in major cities across the US. The maps combine several mapping/web technologies that offer a new way of visualizing population change. This post explains how we did it.
(And by popular demand, we’ve also included a map of Congressman Anthony Weiner’s district in relation to demographic change — you may have heard of him and his Twitter travails recently?)
Briefly, the maps show race/ethnicity change from 2000 to 2010 at the local level throughout major urban regions across the U.S. So far we include New York City, Los Angeles, Boston, Chicago, Houston, and San Francisco. (Others are coming soon.)
For our methodology and data analysis (and static maps), we provide that here. For the mapping and web techniques, see below.
So far we’ve received a pretty good response to our maps. Here are some tweets posted recently:
- @dancow (web journalist for ProPublica): Cool before/after map from CUNY’s urban research center showing NYC ethnic changes at the block level, from 2000-10.
- @mericson (deputy graphics editor at NY Times): Nice block-level maps by @SR_spatial & CUNY Urban Research Center showing racial/ethnic change in NYC from 2000 to 2010.
- @kelsosCorner (former Washington Post cartographer): Digging new 2010 Census plurality maps of NYC.
- @albertsun (graphics editor at Wall St Journal): Coolest census map I’ve seen yet.
- @PJoice (HUD employee; tweets are his own): This is the coolest map I have ever seen. Nice work by @SR_spatial and CUNY!
- @MapLarge: I like how you can use the slider or move the map! Great Visualization!
The map uses the “before and after” technique that media websites have used for images of natural disasters. We enhanced this technique by integrating it with interactive maps using OpenLayers, the open source mapping framework. Now the slider works with two sets of overlapping, but perfectly aligned, maps from 2000 and 2010.
As it turns out, we didn’t set out to create an interactive version of these maps. In fact, we originally created static maps, but everyone we showed them to for feedback wanted the ability to zoom in/out and click on the map for more info. So we developed the OpenLayers version. (And when I say “we”, that mainly means David Burgoon, CUR’s application architect, who I can’t say enough good things about. I made the maps, and CUR’s Joe Pereira of the CUNY Data Service created the data sets, but Dave brought it all to life.)
OpenLayers enables us to introduce interactivity into the before-and-after images. Maps like these (to our knowledge) have not been available before — where you can move a slider back and forth while also zooming in/out and clicking on individual Census blocks for detailed information. You can also change the transparency of the thematic map layer, and switch between a street view and aerial view basemap.
It involved a good amount of work to integrate the slider technique with OpenLayers and also have two overlapping map instances working in tandem. The two maps need to appear as one, and this involves painstaking effort to ensure that the pixels on your screen are translated accurately to latitude/longitude coordinates in each of the separate but related interactive map instances, and the maps pan together seamlessly as you drag the slider left or right or move the map and it crosses the slider.
In order to create the application, we used a mix of software applications, technologies, and techniques, summarized below:
- We used the statistical software package SPSS to extract the Census block-level data for both years (see our methodology), allocate the 2000 data to 2010 blocks using the Census Bureau’s block equivalency files, and calculate the race/ethnicity plurality for each block.
- We exported these SPSS files in DBF format and used ESRI’s ArcGIS Desktop to join the DBFs with 2010 TIGER Census block shapefiles.
- ArcGIS Desktop was also used to create the choropleth maps (based on color schemes from ColorBrewer.org);
- The map layouts were published as temporary web map services using ESRI’s ArcGIS Server. We used these to create pre-cached tiles (.PNG files) for the 2000 and 2010 maps, corresponding to zoom levels 4 through 10 using the now-standard Google-Microsoft map scales for online web maps. (Our application accesses the choropleth tiles as PNGs directly from the cache created by ArcGIS Server, rather than accessing the ArcGIS web map service in order to assemble the tiles. The latter approach would be too slow and would undermine the transition as you dragged the slider across the map.)
- The slider technique was adapted from the jQuery plugin by www.catchmyfame.com.
- The basemap shown beneath the color-shaded map tiles is provided by Microsoft’s Bing map service. The street map and aerial image tiles from Bing are accessed directly via OpenLayers, rather than using the Bing API. This is a key reason we used Bing for these maps; if we used Google Maps as a basemap, we were limited to accessing Google Maps via Google’s API, which would have slowed map drawing times and undermined the slider effect.
- For geocoding we use the Yahoo! Placefinder API.
- Some browsers are not able to handle the before/after slider effect smoothly. In particular, Firefox and Safari perform poorly; the slider transition between one map to the other is not smooth. Microsoft’s Internet Explorer is adequate, but Google’s Chrome browser is best.
We used block-level data from the Census Bureau’s 100% population counts from the 2000 and 2010 decennial censuses (from Table P2 in the “PL-94-171” files for 2000 and 2010).
The Census Bureau’s block geography changed between 2000 and 2010 — new blocks were created, blocks were merged, and block boundaries were modified in many places. In order to compare population data from 2000 and 2010 using a common set of blocks, we used the Census Bureau’s block relationship file to allocate the 2000 population counts to 2010 geography.
When you’re viewing the map, it is best to use the maps and block-level data to understand trends over a larger area, even over several blocks. Be careful when viewing a specific block on its own. It covers a small area, and the Census Bureau may have made errors.
Funding for much of the Center’s recent work on Census issues has been provided by the Building Resilient Regions Project of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Hagedorn Foundation, as well as support from the CUNY Graduate Center and the City University of New York.
Several people provided feedback and helpful editorial suggestions on earlier versions of the maps and narrative. Though the materials at this site were prepared by the Center for Urban Research, those invdividuals improved our work. We greatly appreciate their contributions.